中华人民共和国加入议定书(WTO)(中英文全版)

发文人:国务院
发布时间:2001-11-10 19:27:30

世界贸易组织

多哈

2001年11月10日


中华人民共和国加入议定书


序言


  世界贸易组织(“WTO”),按照WTO部长级会议根据《马拉喀什建立世界贸易组织协定》(“《WTO协定》”)第12条所作出的批准,与中华人民共和国(“中国”),

  忆及中国是《1947年关税与贸易总协定》的创始缔约方,

  注意到中国是《乌拉圭回合多边贸易谈判结果最后文件》的签署方,

  注意到载于WT/ACC/CHN/49号文件的《中国加入工作组报告书》(“工作组报告书”),

  考虑到关于中国WTO成员资格的谈判结果,

  协议如下:

第一部分 总则

第1条

总体情况

1.自加入时起,中国根据《WTO协定》第12条加入该协定,并由此成为WTO成员。

2.中国所加入的《WTO协定》应为经在加入之日前已生效的法律文件所更正、修正或修改的《WTO协定》。本议定书,包括工作组报告书第342段所指的承诺,应成为《WTO协定》的组成部分。

3.除本议定书另有规定外,中国应履行《WTO协定》所附各多边贸易协定中的、应在自该协定生效之日起开始的一段时间内履行的义务,如同中国在该协定生效之日已接受该协定。

4.中国可维持与《服务贸易总协定》(“GATS”)第2条第1款规定不一致的措施,只要此措施已记录在本议定书所附《第2条豁免清单》中,并符合GATS《关于第2条豁免的附件》中的条件。

第2条

贸易制度的实施

(A)统一实施

1.《WTO协定》和本议定书的规定应适用于中国的全部关税领土,包括边境贸易地区、民族自治地方、经济特区、沿海开放城市、经济技术开发区以及其他在关税、国内税和法规方面已建立特殊制度的地区(统称为“特殊经济区”)。

2.中国应以统一、公正和合理的方式适用和实施中央政府有关或影响货物贸易、服务贸易、与贸易有关的知识产权(“TRIPS”)或外汇管制的所有法律、法规及其他措施以及地方各级政府发布或适用的地方性法规、规章及其他措施(统称为“法律、法规及其他措施”)。

3.中国地方各级政府的地方性法规、规章及其他措施应符合在《WTO协定》和本议定书中所承担的义务。

4.中国应建立一种机制,使个人和企业可据以提请国家主管机关注意贸易制度未统一适用的情况。

(B)特殊经济区

1.中国应将所有与其特殊经济区有关的法律、法规及其他措施通知WTO,列明这些地区的名称,并指明界定这些地区的地理界线。中国应迅速,且无论如何应在60天内,将特殊经济区的任何增加或改变通知WTO,包括与此有关的法律、法规及其他措施。

2.对于自特殊经济区输入中国关税领土其他部分的产品,包括物理结合的部件,中国应适用通常适用于输入中国关税领土其他部分的进口产品的所有影响进口产品的税费和措施,包括进口限制及海关税费。

3.除本议定书另有规定外,在对此类特殊经济区内的企业提供优惠安排时,WTO关于非歧视和国民待遇的规定应得到全面遵守。

(C)透明度

1.中国承诺只执行已公布的、且其他WTO成员、个人和企业可容易获得的有关或影响货物贸易、服务贸易、TRIPS或外汇管制的法律、法规及其他措施。此外,在所有有关或影响货物贸易、服务贸易、TRIPS或外汇管制的法律、法规及其他措施实施或执行前,应请求,中国应使WTO成员可获得此类措施。在紧急情况下,应使法律、法规及其他措施最迟在实施或执行之时可获得。

2.中国应设立或指定一官方刊物,用于公布所有有关或影响货物贸易、服务贸易、TRIPS或外汇管制的法律、法规及其他措施,并且在其法律、法规或其他措施在该刊物上公布之后,应在此类措施实施之前提供一段可向有关主管机关提出意见的合理时间,但涉及国家安全的法律、法规及其他措施、确定外汇汇率或货币政策的特定措施以及一旦公布则会妨碍法律实施的其他措施除外。中国应定期出版该刊物,并使个人和企业可容易获得该刊物各期。

3.中国应设立或指定一咨询点,应任何个人、企业或WTO成员的请求,在咨询点可获得根据本议定书第2条(C)节第1款要求予以公布的措施有关的所有信息。对此类提供信息请求的答复一般应在收到请求后30天内作出。在例外情况下,可在收到请求后45天内作出答复。延迟的通知及其原因应以书面形式向有关当事人提供。向WTO成员作出的答复应全面,并应代表中国政府的权威观点。应向个人和企业提供准确和可靠的信息。

(D)司法审查

1.中国应设立或指定并维持审查庭、联络点和程序,以便迅速审查所有与《1994年关税与贸易总协定》(“GATT1994”)第10条第1款、GATS第6条和《TRIPS协定》相关规定所指的法律、法规、普遍适用的司法决定和行政决定的实施有关的所有行政行为。此类审查庭应是公正的,并独立于被授权进行行政执行的机关,且不应对审查事项的结果有任何实质利害关系。

2.审查程序应包括给予受须经审查的任何行政行为影响的个人或企业进行上诉的机会,且不因上诉而受到处罚。如初始上诉权需向行政机关提出,则在所有情况下应有选择向司法机关对决定提出上诉的机会。关于上诉的决定应通知上诉人,作出该决定的理由应以书面形式提供。上诉人还应被告知可进一步上诉的任何权利。

第3条

非歧视

  除本议定书另有规定外,在下列方面给予外国个人、企业和外商投资企业的待遇不得低于给予其他个人和企业的待遇:

(a) 生产所需投入物、货物和服务的采购,及其货物据以在国内市场或供出口而生产、营销或销售的条件;及

(b) 国家和地方各级主管机关以及公有或国有企业在包括运输、能源、基础电信、其他生产设施和要素等领域所供应的货物和服务的价格和可用性。

第4条

特殊贸易安排

  自加入时起,中国应取消与第三国和单独关税区之间的、与《WTO协定》不符的所有特殊贸易安排,包括易货贸易安排,或使其符合《WTO协定》。

第5条

贸易权

1.在不损害中国以与符合《WTO协定》的方式管理贸易的权利的情况下,中国应逐步放宽贸易权的获得及其范围,以便在加入后3年内,使所有在中国的企业均有权在中国的全部关税领土内从事所有货物的贸易,但附件2A所列依照本议定书继续实行国营贸易的货物除外。此种贸易权应为进口或出口货物的权利。对于所有此类货物,均应根据GATT1994第3条,特别是其中第4款的规定,在国内销售、许诺销售、购买、运输、分销或使用方面,包括直接接触最终用户方面,给予国民待遇。对于附件2B所列货物,中国应根据该附件中所列时间表逐步取消在给予贸易权方面的限制。中国应在过渡期内完成执行这些规定所必需的立法程序。

2.除本议定书另有规定外,对于所有外国个人和企业,包括未在中国投资或注册的外国个人和企业,在贸易权方面应给予其不低于给予在中国的企业的待遇。

第6条

国营贸易

1.中国应保证国营贸易企业的进口购买程序完全透明,并符合《WTO协定》,且应避免采取任何措施对国营贸易企业购买或销售货物的数量、价值或原产国施加影响或指导,但依照《WTO协定》进行的除外。

2.作为根据GATT1994和《关于解释1994年关税与贸易总协定第17条的谅解》所作通知的一部分,中国还应提供有关其国营贸易企业出口货物定价机制的全部信息。

第7条

非关税措施

1.中国应执行附件3包含的非关税措施取消时间表。在附件3中所列期限内,对该附件中所列措施所提供的保护在规模、范围或期限方面不得增加或扩大,且不得实施任何新的措施,除非符合《WTO协定》的规定。

2.在实施GATT1994第3条、第11条和《农业协定》的规定时,中国应取消且不得采取、重新采取或实施不能根据《WTO协定》的规定证明为合理的非关税措施。对于在加入之日以后实施的、与本议定书或《WTO协定》相一致的非关税措施,无论附件3是否提及,中国均应严格遵守《WTO协定》的规定,包括GATT1994及其第13条以及《进口许可程序协定》的规定,包括通知要求,对此类措施进行分配或管理。

3.自加入时起,中国应遵守《TRIMs协定》,但不援用《TRIMs协定》第5条的规定。中国应取消并停止执行通过法律、法规或其他措施实施的贸易平衡要求和外汇平衡要求、当地含量要求和出口实绩要求。此外,中国将不执行设置此类要求的合同条款。在不损害本议定书有关规定的情况下,中国应保证国家和地方各级主管机关对进口许可证、配额、关税配额的分配或对进口、进口权或投资权的任何其他批准方式,不以下列内容为条件:此类产品是否存在与之竞争的国内供应者;任何类型的实绩要求,例如当地含量、补偿、技术转让、出口实绩或在中国进行研究与开发等。

4.进出口禁止和限制以及影响进出口的许可程序要求只能由国家主管机关或由国家主管机关授权的地方各级主管机关实行和执行。不得实施或执行不属国家主管机关或由国家主管机关授权的地方各级主管机关实行的措施。

第8条

进出口许可程序

1.在实施《WTO协定》和《进口许可程序协定》的规定时,中国应采取以下措施,以便遵守这些协定:

(a) 中国应定期在本议定书第2条(C)节第2款所指的官方刊物中公布下列内容:

- 按产品排列的所有负责授权或批准进出口的组织的清单,包括由国家主管机关授权的组织,无论是通过发放许可证还是其他批准;

- 获得此类进出口许可证或其他批准的程序和标准,以及决定是否发放进出口许可证或其他批准的条件;

- 按照《进口许可程序协定》,按税号排列的实行招标要求管理的全部产品清单,包括关于实行此类招标要求管理产品的信息及任何变更;

- 限制或禁止进出口的所有货物和技术的清单;这些货物也应通知进口许可程序委员会;

- 限制或禁止进出口的货物和技术清单的任何变更;

用一种或多种WTO正式语文提交的这些文件的副本应在每次公布后75天内送交WTO,供散发WTO成员并提交进口许可程序委员会。

(b) 中国应将加入后仍然有效的所有许可程序和配额要求通知WTO,这些要求应按协调制度税号分别排列,并附与此种限制有关的数量(如有数量),以及保留此种限制的理由或预定的终止日期。

(c) 中国应向进口许可程序委员会提交其关于进口许可程序的通知。中国应每年向进口许可程序委员会报告其自动进口许可程序的情况,说明产生这些要求的情况,并证明继续实行的需要。该报告还应提供《进口许可程序协定》第3条中所列信息。

(d) 中国发放的进口许可证的有效期至少应为6个月,除非例外情况使此点无法做到。在此类情况下,中国应将要求缩短许可证有效期的例外情况迅速通知进口许可程序委员会。

2.除本议定书另有规定外,对于外国个人、企业和外商投资企业在进出口许可证和配额分配方面,应给予不低于给予其他个人和企业的待遇。

第9条

价格控制

1.在遵守以下第2款的前提下,中国应允许每一部门交易的货物和服务的价格由市场力量决定,且应取消对此类货物和服务的多重定价做法。

2.在符合《WTO协定》,特别是GATT1994第3条和《农业协定》附件2第3、4款的情况下,可对附件4所列货物和服务实行价格控制。除非在特殊情况下,并须通知WTO,否则不得对附件4所列货物或服务以外的货物或服务实行价格控制,且中国应尽最大努力减少和取消这些控制。

3.中国应在官方刊物上公布实行国家定价的货物和服务的清单及其变更情况。

第10条

补贴

1.中国应通知WTO在其领土内给予或维持的、属《补贴与反补贴措施协定》(“《SCM协定》”)第1条含义内的、按具体产品划分的任何补贴,包括《SCM协定》第3条界定的补贴。所提供的信息应尽可能具体,并遵循《SCM协定》第25条所提及的关于补贴问卷的要求。

2.就实施《SCM协定》第1条第2款和第2条而言,对国有企业提供的补贴将被视为专向性补贴,特别是在国有企业是此类补贴的主要接受者或国有企业接受此类补贴的数量异常之大的情况下。

3.中国应自加入时起取消属《SCM协定》第3条范围内的所有补贴。

第11条

对进出口产品征收的税费

1.中国应保证国家主管机关或地方各级主管机关实施或管理的海关规费或费用符合GATT1994。

2.中国应保证国家主管机关或地方各级主管机关实施或管理的国内税费,包括增值税,符合GATT1994。

3.中国应取消适用于出口产品的全部税费,除非本议定书附件6中有明确规定或按照GATT1994第8条的规定适用。

4.在进行边境税的调整方面,对于外国个人、企业和外商投资企业,自加入时起应被给予不低于给予其他个人和企业的待遇。

第12条

农业

1.中国应实施中国货物贸易承诺和减让表中包含的规定,以及本议定书具体规定的《农业协定》的条款。在这方面,中国不得对农产品维持或采取任何出口补贴。

2.中国应在过渡性审议机制中,就农业领域的国营贸易企业(无论是国家还是地方)与在农业领域按国营贸易企业经营的其他企业之间或在上述任何企业之间进行的财政和其他转移作出通知。

第13条

技术性贸易壁垒

1.中国应在官方刊物上公布作为技术法规、标准或合格评定程序依据的所有正式的或非正式的标准。

2.中国应自加入时起,使所有技术法规、标准和合格评定程序符合《TBT协定》。

3.中国对进口产品实施合格评定程序的目的应仅为确定其是否符合与本议定书和《WTO协定》规定相一致的技术法规和标准。只有在合同各方授权的情况下,合格评定机构方可对进口产品是否符合该合同的商业条款进行合格评定。中国应保证此种针对产品是否符合合同商业条款的检验不影响此类产品通关或进口许可证的发放。

4.(a)  自加入时起,中国应保证对进口产品和国产品适用相同的技术法规、标准和合格评定程序。为保证从现行体制的顺利过渡,中国应保证自加入时起,所有认证、安全许可和质量许可机构和部门获得既对进口产品又对国产品进行此类活动的授权;加入1年后,所有合格评定机构和部门获得既对进口产品又对国产品进行合格评定的授权。对机构或部门的选择应由申请人决定。对于进口产品和国产品,所有机构和部门应颁发相同的标志,收取相同的费用。它们还应提供相同的处理时间和申诉程序。进口产品不得实行一种以上的合格评定程序。中国应公布并使其他WTO成员、个人和企业可获得有关其各合格评定机构和部门相应职责的全部信息。

  (b)  不迟于加入后18个月,中国应仅依据工作范围和产品种类,指定其各合格评定机构的相应职责,而不考虑产品的原产地。指定给中国各合格评定机构的相应职责将在加入后12个月通知TBT委员会。

第14条

卫生与植物卫生措施

  中国应在加入后30天内,向WTO通知其所有有关卫生与植物卫生措施的法律、法规及其他措施,包括产品范围及相关国际标准、指南和建议。

第15条

确定补贴和倾销时的价格可比性

  GATT1994第6条、《关于实施1994年关税与贸易总协定第6条的协定》(“《反倾销协定》”)以及《SCM协定》应适用于涉及原产于中国的进口产品进入一WTO成员的程序,并应符合下列规定:

  (a) 在根据GATT1994第6条和《反倾销协定》确定价格可比性时,该WTO进口成员应依据下列规则,使用接受调查产业的中国价格或成本,或者使用不依据与中国国内价格或成本进行严格比较的方法:

  (i) 如受调查的生产者能够明确证明,生产该同类产品的产业在制造、生产和销售该产品方面具备市场经济条件,则该WTO进口成员在确定价格可比性时,应使用受调查产业的中国价格或成本;

  (ii) 如受调查的生产者不能明确证明生产该同类产品的产业在制造、生产和销售该产品方面具备市场经济条件,则该WTO进口成员可使用不依据与中国国内价格或成本进行严格比较的方法。

  (b) 在根据《SCM协定》第二、三及五部分规定进行的程序中,在处理第14条(a)项、(b)项、(c)项和(d)项所述补贴时,应适用《SCM协定》的有关规定;但是,如此种适用遇有特殊困难,则该WTO进口成员可使用考虑到中国国内现有情况和条件并非总能用作适当基准这一可能性的确定和衡量补贴利益的方法。在适用此类方法时,只要可行,该WTO进口成员在考虑使用中国以外的情况和条件之前,应对此类现有情况和条件进行调整。

   (c) 该WTO进口成员应向反倾销措施委员会通知依照(a)项使用的方法,并应向补贴与反补贴措施委员会通知依照(b)项使用的方法。

   (d) 一旦中国根据该WTO进口成员的国内法证实其是一个市场经济体,则(a)项的规定即应终止,但截至加入之日,该WTO进口成员的国内法中须包含有关市场经济的标准。无论如何,(a)项(ii)目的规定应在加入之日后15年终止。此外,如中国根据该WTO进口成员的国内法证实一特定产业或部门具备市场经济条件,则(a)项中的非市场经济条款不得再对该产业或部门适用。

第16条

特定产品过渡性保障机制

1.如原产于中国的产品在进口至任何WTO成员领土时,其增长的数量或所依据的条件对生产同类产品或直接竞争产品的国内生产者造成或威胁造成市场扰乱,则受此影响的WTO成员可请求与中国进行磋商,以期寻求双方满意的解决办法,包括受影响的成员是否应根据《保障措施协定》采取措施。任何此种请求应立即通知保障措施委员会。

2.如在这些双边磋商过程中,双方同意原产于中国的进口产品是造成此种情况的原因并有必要采取行动,则中国应采取行动以防止或补救此种市场扰乱。任何此类行动应立即通知保障措施委员会。

3.如磋商未能使中国与有关WTO成员在收到磋商请求后60天内达成协议,则受影响的WTO成员有权在防止或补救此种市场扰乱所必需的限度内,对此类产品撤销减让或限制进口。任何此类行动应立即通知保障措施委员会。

4.市场扰乱应在下列情况下存在:一项产品的进口快速增长,无论是绝对增长还是相对增长,从而构成对生产同类产品或直接竞争产品的国内产业造成实质损害或实质损害威胁的一个重要原因。在认定是否存在市场扰乱时,受影响的WTO成员应考虑客观因素,包括进口量、进口产品对同类产品或直接竞争产品价格的影响以及此类进口产品对生产同类产品或直接竞争产品的国内产业的影响。

5.在根据第3款采取措施之前,采取此项行动的WTO成员应向所有利害关系方提供合理的公告,并应向进口商、出口商及其他利害关系方提供充分机会,供其就拟议措施的适当性及是否符合公众利益提出意见和证据。该WTO成员应提供关于采取措施的决定的书面通知,包括采取该措施的理由及其范围和期限。

6.一WTO成员只能在防止和补救市场扰乱所必需的时限内根据本条采取措施。如一措施是由于进口水平的相对增长而采取的,而且如该项措施持续有效的期限超过2年,则中国有权针对实施该措施的WTO成员的贸易暂停实施GATT1994项下实质相当的减让或义务。但是,如一措施是由于进口的绝对增长而采取的,而且如该措施持续有效的期限超过3年,则中国有权针对实施该措施的WTO成员的贸易暂停实施GATT1994项下实质相当的减让或义务。中国采取的任何此种行动应立即通知保障措施委员会。

7.在迟延会造成难以补救的损害的紧急情况下,受影响的WTO成员可根据一项有关进口产品已经造成或威胁造成市场扰乱的初步认定,采取临时保障措施。在此种情况下,应在采取措施后立即向保障措施委员会作出有关所采取措施的通知,并提出进行双边磋商的请求。临时措施的期限不得超过200天,在此期间,应符合第1款、第2款和第5款的有关要求。任何临时措施的期限均应计入第6款下规定的期限。

8.如一WTO成员认为根据第2款、第3款或第7款采取的行动造成或威胁造成进入其市场的重大贸易转移,则该成员可请求与中国和/或有关WTO成员进行磋商。此类磋商应在向保障措施委员会作出通知后30天内举行。如此类磋商未能在作出通知后60天内使中国与一个或多个有关WTO成员达成协议,则请求进行磋商的WTO成员在防止或补救此类贸易转移所必需的限度内,有权针对该产品撤销减让或限制自中国的进口。此种行动应立即通知保障措施委员会。

9.本条的适用应在加入之日后12年终止。

第17条

WTO成员的保留

  WTO成员以与《WTO协定》不一致的方式针对自中国进口的产品维持的所有禁止、数量限制和其他措施列在附件7中。所有此类禁止、数量限制和其他措施应依照该附件所列共同议定的条件和时间表逐步取消或加以处理。

第18条

过渡性审议机制

1.所获授权涵盖中国在《WTO协定》或本议定书项下承诺的WTO下属机构1,应在加入后1年内,并依照以下第4款,在符合其授权的情况下,审议中国实施《WTO协定》和本议定书相关规定的情况。中国应在审议前向每一下属机构提供相关信息,包括附件1A所列信息。中国也可在具有相关授权的下属机构中提出与第17条下任何保留或其他WTO成员在本议定书中所作任何其他具体承诺有关的问题。每一下属机构应迅速向根据《WTO协定》第4条第5款设立的有关理事会报告审议结果(如适用),有关理事会应随后迅速向总理事会报告。

2.总理事会应在加入后1年内,依照以下第4款,审议中国实施《WTO协定》和本议定书条款的情况。总理事会应依照附件1B所列框架,并按照根据第1款进行的任何审议的结果,进行此项审议。中国也可提出与第17条下任何保留或其他WTO成员在本议定书中所作任何其他具体承诺有关的问题。总理事会可在这些方面向中国或其他成员提出建议。

3.根据本条审议问题不得损害包括中国在内的任何WTO成员在《WTO协定》或任何诸边贸易协定项下的权利和义务,并不得排除或构成要求磋商或援用《WTO协定》或本议定书中其他规定的先决条件。

4.第1款和第2款规定的审议将在加入后8年内每年进行。此后,将在第10年或总理事会决定的较早日期进行最终审议。   

第二部分 减让表

1.本议定书所附减让表应成为与中国有关的、GATT1994所附减让和承诺表及GATS所附具体承诺表。减让表中所列减让和承诺的实施期应按有关减让表相关部分列明的时间执行。

2.就GATT1994第2条第6款(a)项所指的该协定日期而言,本议定书所附减让和承诺表的适用日期应为加入之日。

第三部分 最后条款

1.本议定书应开放供中国在2002年1月1日前以签字或其他方式接受。

2.本议定书应在接受之日后第30天生效。

3.本议定书应交存WTO总干事。总干事应根据本议定书第三部分第1款的规定,迅速向每一WTO成员和中国提供一份本议定书经核证无误的副本和中国接受本议定书通知的副本。

4.本议定书应依照《联合国宪章》第102条的规定予以登记。

  2001年11月10日订于多哈,正本一份用英文、法文和西班牙文写成,三种文本具有同等效力,除非所附减让表中规定该减让表只以以上文字中的一种或多种为准。

中华人民共和国加入议定书(英文本)



PROTOCOL ON THE ACCESSION OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA

Preamble

The World Trade Organization ("WTO"), pursuant to the approval of the Ministerial Conference of the WTO accorded under Article XII of the Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization ("WTO Agreement"), and the People's Republic of China ("China"),

Recalling that China was an original contracting party to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1947,

Taking note that China is a signatory to the Final Act Embodying the Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations,

Taking note of the Report of the Working Party on the Accession of China in document WT/ACC/CHN/49 ("Working Party Report"),

Having regard to the results of the negotiations concerning China's membership in the WTO,

Agree as follows:

Part I - General Provisions

1. General

1. Upon accession, China accedes to the WTO Agreement pursuant to Article XII of that Agreement and thereby becomes a Member of the WTO.

2. The WTO Agreement to which China accedes shall be the WTO Agreement as rectified, amended or otherwise modified by such legal instruments as may have entered into force before the date of accession. This Protocol, which shall include the commitments referred to in paragraph 342 of the Working Party Report, shall be an integral part of the WTO Agreement.

3. Except as otherwise provided for in this Protocol, those obligations in the Multilateral Trade Agreements annexed to the WTO Agreement that are to be implemented over a period of time starting with entry into force of that Agreement shall be implemented by China as if it had accepted that Agreement on the date of its entry into force.

4. China may maintain a measure inconsistent with paragraph 1of Article II of the General Agreement on Trade in Services ("GATS") provided that such a measure is recorded in the List of Article II Exemptions annexed to this Protocol and meets the conditions of the Annex to the GATS on Article II Exemptions.

2. Administration of the Trade Regime

(A) Uniform Administration

1. The provisions of the WTO Agreement and this Protocol shall apply to the entire customs territory of China, including border trade regions and minority autonomous areas, Special Economic Zones, open coastal cities, economic and technical development zones and other areas where special regimes for tariffs, taxes and regulations are established (collectively referred to as "special economic areas"). 

2. China shall apply and administer in a uniform, impartial and reasonable manner all its laws, regulations and other measures of the central government as well as local regulations, rules and other measures issued or applied at the sub-national level (collectively referred to as "laws, regulations and other measures") pertaining to or affecting trade in goods, services, trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights ("TRIPS") or the control of foreign exchange.

3. China's local regulations, rules and other measures of local governments at the sub-national level shall conform to the obligations undertaken in the WTO Agreement and this Protocol.

4. China shall establish a mechanism under which individuals and enterprises can bring to the attention of the national authorities cases of non-uniform application of the trade regime.

(B) Special Economic Areas

1. China shall notify to the WTO all the relevant laws, regulations and other measures relating to its special economic areas, listing these areas by name and indicating the geographic boundaries that define them. China shall notify the WTO promptly, but in any case within 60 days, of any additions or modifications to its special economic areas, including notification of the laws, regulations and other measures relating thereto. 

2. China shall apply to imported products, including physically incorporated components, introduced into the other parts of China's customs territory from the special economic areas, all taxes, charges and measures affecting imports, including import restrictions and customs and tariff charges, that are normally applied to imports into the other parts of China's customs territory.

3. Except as otherwise provided for in this Protocol, in providing preferential arrangements for enterprises within such special economic areas, WTO provisions on non-discrimination and national treatment shall be fully observed.

(C) Transparency

1. China undertakes that only those laws, regulations and other measures pertaining to or affecting trade in goods, services, TRIPS or the control of foreign exchange that are published and readily available to other WTO Members, individuals and enterprises, shall be enforced. In addition, China shall make available to WTO Members, upon request, all laws, regulations and other measures pertaining to or affecting trade in goods, services, TRIPS or the control of foreign exchange before such measures are implemented or enforced. In emergency situations, laws, regulations and other measures shall be made available at the latest when they are implemented or enforced.

2. China shall establish or designate an official journal dedicated to the publication of all laws, regulations and other measures pertaining to or affecting trade in goods, services, TRIPS or the control of foreign exchange and, after publication of its laws, regulations or other measures in such journal, shall provide a reasonable period for comment to the appropriate authorities before such measures are implemented, except for those laws, regulations and other measures involving national security, specific measures setting foreign exchange rates or monetary policy and other measures the publication of which would impede law enforcement. China shall publish this journal on a regular basis and make copies of all issues of this journal readily available to individuals and enterprises.

3. China shall establish or designate an enquiry point where, upon request of any individual, enterprise or WTO Member all information relating to the measures required to be published under paragraph 2(C)1 of this Protocol may be obtained. Replies to requests for information shall generally be provided within 30 days after receipt of a request. In exceptional cases, replies may be provided within 45 days after receipt of a request. Notice of the delay and the reasons therefor shall be provided in writing to the interested party. Replies to WTO Members shall be complete and shall represent the authoritative view of the Chinese government. Accurate and reliable information shall be provided to individuals and enterprises.

(D) Judicial Review

1. China shall establish, or designate, and maintain tribunals, contact points and procedures for the prompt review of all administrative actions relating to the implementation of laws, regulations, judicial decisions and administrative rulings of general application referred to in Article X:1 of the GATT 1994, Article VI of the GATS and the relevant provisions of the TRIPS Agreement. Such tribunals shall be impartial and independent of the agency entrusted with administrative enforcement and shall not have any substantial interest in the outcome of the matter.

2. Review procedures shall include the opportunity for appeal, without penalty, by individuals or enterprises affected by any administrative action subject to review. If the initial right of appeal is to an administrative body, there shall in all cases be the opportunity to choose to appeal the decision to a judicial body. Notice of the decision on appeal shall be given to the appellant and the reasons for such decision shall be provided in writing. The appellant shall also be informed of any right to further appeal.

3. Non-discrimination

Except as otherwise provided for in this Protocol, foreign individuals and enterprises and foreign-funded enterprises shall be accorded treatment no less favourable than that accorded to other individuals and enterprises in respect of: 

(a) the procurement of inputs and goods and services necessary for production and the conditions under which their goods are produced, marketed or sold, in the domestic market and for export; and

(b) the prices and availability of goods and services supplied by national and sub-national authorities and public or state enterprises, in areas including transportation, energy, basic telecommunications, other utilities and factors of production.

4. Special Trade Arrangements

Upon accession, China shall eliminate or bring into conformity with the WTO Agreement all special trade arrangements, including barter trade arrangements, with third countries and separate customs territories, which are not in conformity with the WTO Agreement.

5. Right to Trade

1. Without prejudice to China's right to regulate trade in a manner consistent with the WTO Agreement, China shall progressively liberalize the availability and scope of the right to trade, so that, within three years after accession, all enterprises in China shall have the right to trade in all goods throughout the customs territory of China, except for those goods listed in Annex 2A which continue to be subject to state trading in accordance with this Protocol. Such right to trade shall be the right to import and export goods. All such goods shall be accorded national treatment under Article III of the GATT 1994, especially paragraph 4 thereof, in respect of their internal sale, offering for sale, purchase, transportation, distribution or use, including their direct access to end-users. For those goods listed in Annex 2B, China shall phase out limitation on the grant of trading rights pursuant to the schedule in that Annex. China shall complete all necessary legislative procedures to implement these provisions during the transition period.

2. Except as otherwise provided for in this Protocol, all foreign individuals and enterprises, including those not invested or registered in China, shall be accorded treatment no less favourable than that accorded to enterprises in China with respect to the right to trade.

6. State Trading

1. China shall ensure that import purchasing procedures of state trading enterprises are fully transparent, and in compliance with the WTO Agreement, and shall refrain from taking any measure to influence or direct state trading enterprises as to the quantity, value, or country of origin of goods purchased or sold, except in accordance with the WTO Agreement.

2. As part of China's notification under the GATT 1994 and the Understanding on the Interpretation of Article XVII of the GATT 1994, China shall also provide full information on the pricing mechanisms of its state trading enterprises for exported goods. 

7. Non-Tariff Measures

1. China shall implement the schedule for phased elimination of the measures contained in Annex 3. During the periods specified in Annex 3, the protection afforded by the measures listed in that Annex shall not be increased or expanded in size, scope or duration, nor shall any new measures be applied, unless in conformity with the provisions of the WTO Agreement.

2. In implementing the provisions of Articles III and XI of the GATT 1994 and the Agreement on Agriculture, China shall eliminate and shall not introduce, re-introduce or apply non-tariff measures that cannot be justified under the provisions of the WTO Agreement. For all non-tariff measures, whether or not referred to in Annex 3, that are applied after the date of accession, consistent with the WTO Agreement or this Protocol, China shall allocate and otherwise administer such measures in strict conformity with the provisions of the WTO Agreement, including GATT 1994 and Article XIII thereof, and the Agreement on Import Licensing Procedures, including notification requirements.

3. China shall, upon accession, comply with the TRIMs Agreement, without recourse to the provisions of Article 5 of the TRIMs Agreement. China shall eliminate and cease to enforce trade and foreign exchange balancing requirements, local content and export or performance requirements made effective through laws, regulations or other measures. Moreover, China will not enforce provisions of contracts imposing such requirements. Without prejudice to the relevant provisions of this Protocol, China shall ensure that the distribution of import licences, quotas, tariff-rate quotas, or any other means of approval for importation, the right of importation or investment by national and sub-national authorities, is not conditioned on: whether competing domestic suppliers of such products exist; or performance requirements of any kind, such as local content, offsets, the transfer of technology, export performance or the conduct of research and development in China. 

4. Import and export prohibitions and restrictions, and licensing requirements affecting imports and exports shall only be imposed and enforced by the national authorities or by sub-national authorities with authorization from the national authorities. Such measures which are not imposed by the national authorities or by sub-national authorities with authorization from the national authorities, shall not be implemented or enforced.

8. Import and Export Licensing

1. In implementing the WTO Agreement and provisions of the Agreement on Import Licensing Procedures, China shall undertake the following measures to facilitate compliance with these agreements:

(a) China shall publish on a regular basis the following in the official journal referred to in paragraph 2(C)2 of this Protocol:

- by product, the list of all organizations, including those organizations delegated such authority by the national authorities, that are responsible for authorizing or approving imports or exports, whether through grant of licence or other approval;

- procedures and criteria for obtaining such import or export licences or other approvals, and the conditions for deciding whether they should be granted;

- a list of all products, by tariff number, that are subject to tendering requirements, including information on products subject to such tendering requirements and any changes, pursuant to the Agreement on Import Licensing Procedures;

- a list of all goods and technologies whose import or export are restricted or prohibited; these goods shall also be notified to the Committee on Import Licensing;

- any changes to the list of goods and technologies whose import and export are restricted or prohibited.

Copies of these submissions in one or more official languages of the WTO shall be forwarded to the WTO for circulation to WTO Members and for submission to the Committee on Import Licensing within 75 days of each publication.

(b) China shall notify the WTO of all licensing and quota requirements remaining in effect after accession, listed separately by HS tariff line and with the quantities associated with the restriction, if any, and the justification for maintaining the restriction or its scheduled date of termination.

(c) China shall submit the notification of its import licensing procedures to the Committee on Import Licensing. China shall report annually to the Committee on Import Licensing on its automatic import licensing procedures, explaining the circumstances which give rise to these requirements and justifying the need for their continuation. This report shall also provide the information listed in Article 3 of the Agreement on Import Licensing Procedures.

(d) China shall issue import licences for a minimum duration of validity of six months, except where exceptional circumstances make this impossible. In such cases, China shall promptly notify the Committee on Import Licensing of the exceptional circumstances requiring the shorter period of licence validity.

2. Except as otherwise provided for in this Protocol, foreign individuals and enterprises and foreign-funded enterprises shall be accorded treatment no less favourable than that accorded to other individuals and enterprises in respect of the distribution of import and export licences and quotas.

9. Price Controls

1. China shall, subject to paragraph 2 below, allow prices for traded goods and services in every sector to be determined by market forces, and multi-tier pricing practices for such goods and services shall be eliminated.

2. The goods and services listed in Annex 4 may be subject to price controls, consistent with the WTO Agreement, in particular Article III of the GATT 1994 and Annex 2, paragraphs 3 and 4 of the Agreement on Agriculture. Except in exceptional circumstances, and subject to notification to the WTO, price controls shall not be extended to goods or services beyond those listed in Annex 4, and China shall make best efforts to reduce and eliminate these controls.

3. China shall publish in the official journal the list of goods and services subject to state pricing and changes thereto. 

10. Subsidies

1. China shall notify the WTO of any subsidy within the meaning of Article 1 of the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures ("SCM Agreement"), granted or maintained in its territory, organized by specific product, including those subsidies defined in Article 3 of the SCM Agreement. The information provided should be as specific as possible, following the requirements of the questionnaire on subsidies as noted in Article 25 of the SCM Agreement. 

2. For purposes of applying Articles 1.2 and 2 of the SCM Agreement, subsidies provided to state-owned enterprises will be viewed as specific if, inter alia, state-owned enterprises are the predominant recipients of such subsidies or state-owned enterprises receive disproportionately large amounts of such subsidies.

3. China shall eliminate all subsidy programmes falling within the scope of Article 3 of the SCM Agreement upon accession.

11. Taxes and Charges Levied on Imports and Exports

1. China shall ensure that customs fees or charges applied or administered by national or sub-national authorities, shall be in conformity with the GATT 1994.

2. China shall ensure that internal taxes and charges, including value-added taxes, applied or administered by national or sub-national authorities shall be in conformity with the GATT 1994. 

3. China shall eliminate all taxes and charges applied to exports unless specifically provided for in Annex 6 of this Protocol or applied in conformity with the provisions of Article VIII of the GATT 1994.

4. Foreign individuals and enterprises and foreign-funded enterprises shall, upon accession, be accorded treatment no less favourable than that accorded to other individuals and enterprises in respect of the provision of border tax adjustments.

12. Agriculture

1. China shall implement the provisions contained in China's Schedule of Concessions and Commitments on Goods and, as specifically provided in this Protocol, those of the Agreement on Agriculture. In this context, China shall not maintain or introduce any export subsidies on agricultural products.

2. China shall, under the Transitional Review Mechanism, notify fiscal and other transfers between or among state-owned enterprises in the agricultural sector (whether national or sub-national) and other enterprises that operate as state trading enterprises in the agricultural sector.

13. Technical Barriers to Trade

1. China shall publish in the official journal all criteria, whether formal or informal, that are the basis for a technical regulation, standard or conformity assessment procedure.

2. China shall, upon accession, bring into conformity with the TBT Agreement all technical regulations, standards and conformity assessment procedures.

3. China shall apply conformity assessment procedures to imported products only to determine compliance with technical regulations and standards that are consistent with the provisions of this Protocol and the WTO Agreement. Conformity assessment bodies will determine the conformity of imported products with commercial terms of contracts only if authorized by the parties to such contract. China shall ensure that such inspection of products for compliance with the commercial terms of contracts does not affect customs clearance or the granting of import licences for such products.

4. (a) Upon accession, China shall ensure that the same technical regulations, standards and conformity assessment procedures are applied to both imported and domestic products. In order to ensure a smooth transition from the current system, China shall ensure that, upon accession, all certification, safety licensing, and quality licensing bodies and agencies are authorized to undertake these activities for both imported and domestic products, and that, one year after accession, all conformity assessment bodies and agencies are authorized to undertake conformity assessment for both imported and domestic products. The choice of body or agency shall be at the discretion of the applicant. For imported and domestic products, all bodies and agencies shall issue the same mark and charge the same fee. They shall also provide the same processing periods and complaint procedures. Imported products shall not be subject to more than one conformity assessment. China shall publish and make readily available to other WTO Members, individuals, and enterprises full information on the respective responsibilities of its conformity assessment bodies and agencies. 

(b) No later than 18 months after accession, China shall assign the respective responsibilities of its conformity assessment bodies solely on the basis of the scope of work and type of product without any consideration of the origin of a product. The respective responsibilities that will be assigned to China's conformity assessment bodies will be notified to the TBT Committee 12 months after accession.

14. Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures

China shall notify to the WTO all laws, regulations and other measures relating to its sanitary and phytosanitary measures, including product coverage and relevant international standards, guidelines and recommendations, within 30 days after accession.

15. Price Comparability in Determining Subsidies and Dumping

Article VI of the GATT 1994, the Agreement on Implementation of Article VI of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994 ("Anti-Dumping Agreement") and the SCM Agreement shall apply in proceedings involving imports of Chinese origin into a WTO Member consistent with the following:

(a) In determining price comparability under Article VI of the GATT 1994 and the Anti-Dumping Agreement, the importing WTO Member shall use either Chinese prices or costs for the industry under investigation or a methodology that is not based on a strict comparison with domestic prices or costs in China based on the following rules:

(i) If the producers under investigation can clearly show that market economy conditions prevail in the industry producing the like product with regard to the manufacture, production and sale of that product, the importing WTO Member shall use Chinese prices or costs for the industry under investigation in determining price comparability;

(ii) The importing WTO Member may use a methodology that is not based on a strict comparison with domestic prices or costs in China if the producers under investigation cannot clearly show that market economy conditions prevail in the industry producing the like product with regard to manufacture, production and sale of that product.

(b) In proceedings under Parts II, III and V of the SCM Agreement, when addressing subsidies described in Articles 14(a), 14(b), 14(c) and 14(d), relevant provisions of the SCM Agreement shall apply; however, if there are special difficulties in that application, the importing WTO Member may then use methodologies for identifying and measuring the subsidy benefit which take into account the possibility that prevailing terms and conditions in China may not always be available as appropriate benchmarks. In applying such methodologies, where practicable, the importing WTO Member should adjust such prevailing terms and conditions before considering the use of terms and conditions prevailing outside China.

(c) The importing WTO Member shall notify methodologies used in accordance with subparagraph (a) to the Committee on Anti-Dumping Practices and shall notify methodologies used in accordance with subparagraph (b) to the Committee on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures.

(d) Once China has established, under the national law of the importing WTO Member, that it is a market economy, the provisions of subparagraph (a) shall be terminated provided that the importing Member's national law contains market economy criteria as of the date of accession. In any event, the provisions of subparagraph (a)(ii) shall expire 15 years after the date of accession. In addition, should China establish, pursuant to the national law of the importing WTO Member, that market economy conditions prevail in a particular industry or sector, the non-market economy provisions of subparagraph (a) shall no longer apply to that industry or sector.

16. Transitional Product-Specific Safeguard Mechanism

1. In cases where products of Chinese origin are being imported into the territory of any WTO Member in such increased quantities or under such conditions as to cause or threaten to cause market disruption to the domestic producers of like or directly competitive products, the WTO Member so affected may request consultations with China with a view to seeking a mutually satisfactory solution, including whether the affected WTO Member should pursue application of a measure under the Agreement on Safeguards. Any such request shall be notified immediately to the Committee on Safeguards.

2. If, in the course of these bilateral consultations, it is agreed that imports of Chinese origin are such a cause and that action is necessary, China shall take such action as to prevent or remedy the market disruption. Any such action shall be notified immediately to the Committee on Safeguards.

3. If consultations do not lead to an agreement between China and the WTO Member concerned within 60 days of the receipt of a request for consultations, the WTO Member affected shall be free, in respect of such products, to withdraw concessions or otherwise to limit imports only to the extent necessary to prevent or remedy such market disruption. Any such action shall be notified immediately to the Committee on Safeguards.

4. Market disruption shall exist whenever imports of an article, like or directly competitive with an article produced by the domestic industry, are increasing rapidly, either absolutely or relatively, so as to be a significant cause of material injury, or threat of material injury to the domestic industry. In determining if market disruption exists, the affected WTO Member shall consider objective factors, including the volume of imports, the effect of imports on prices for like or directly competitive articles, and the effect of such imports on the domestic industry producing like or directly competitive products.

5. Prior to application of a measure pursuant to paragraph 3, the WTO Member taking such action shall provide reasonable public notice to all interested parties and provide adequate opportunity for importers, exporters and other interested parties to submit their views and evidence on the appropriateness of the proposed measure and whether it would be in the public interest. The WTO Member shall provide written notice of the decision to apply a measure, including the reasons for such measure and its scope and duration.

6. A WTO Member shall apply a measure pursuant to this Section only for such period of time as may be necessary to prevent or remedy the market disruption. If a measure is taken as a result of a relative increase in the level of imports, China has the right to suspend the application of substantially equivalent concessions or obligations under the GATT 1994 to the trade of the WTO Member applying the measure, if such measure remains in effect more than two years. However, if a measure is taken as a result of an absolute increase in imports, China has a right to suspend the application of substantially equivalent concessions or obligations under the GATT 1994 to the trade of the WTO Member applying the measure, if such measure remains in effect more than three years. Any such action by China shall be notified immediately to the Committee on Safeguards.

7. In critical circumstances, where delay would cause damage which it would be difficult to repair, the WTO Member so affected may take a provisional safeguard measure pursuant to a preliminary determination that imports have caused or threatened to cause market disruption. In this case, notification of the measures taken to the Committee on Safeguards and a request for bilateral consultations shall be effected immediately thereafter. The duration of the provisional measure shall not exceed 200 days during which the pertinent requirements of paragraphs 1, 2 and 5 shall be met. The duration of any provisional measure shall be counted toward the period provided for under paragraph 6.

8. If a WTO Member considers that an action taken under paragraphs 2, 3 or 7 causes or threatens to cause significant diversions of trade into its market, it may request consultations with China and/or the WTO Member concerned. Such consultations shall be held within 30 days after the request is notified to the Committee on Safeguards. If such consultations fail to lead to an agreement between China and the WTO Member or Members concerned within 60 days after the notification, the requesting WTO Member shall be free, in respect of such product, to withdraw concessions accorded to or otherwise limit imports from China, to the extent necessary to prevent or remedy such diversions. Such action shall be notified immediately to the Committee on Safeguards.

9. Application of this Section shall be terminated 12 years after the date of accession.

17. Reservations by WTO Members

All prohibitions, quantitative restrictions and other measures maintained by WTO Members against imports from China in a manner inconsistent with the WTO Agreement are listed in Annex 7. All such prohibitions, quantitative restrictions and other measures shall be phased out or dealt with in accordance with mutually agreed terms and timetables as specified in the said Annex.

18. Transitional Review Mechanism

1. Those subsidiary bodies1 of the WTO which have a mandate covering China's commitments under the WTO Agreement or this Protocol shall, within one year after accession and in accordance with paragraph 4 below, review, as appropriate to their mandate, the implementation by China of the WTO Agreement and of the related provisions of this Protocol. China shall provide relevant information, including information specified in Annex 1A, to each subsidiary body in advance of the review. China can also raise issues relating to any reservations under Section 17 or to any other specific commitments made by other Members in this Protocol, in those subsidiary bodies which have a relevant mandate. Each subsidiary body shall report the results of such review promptly to the relevant Council established by paragraph 5 of Article IV of the WTO Agreement, if applicable, which shall in turn report promptly to the General Council.

2. The General Council shall, within one year after accession, and in accordance with paragraph 4 below, review the implementation by China of the WTO Agreement and the provisions of this Protocol. The General Council shall conduct such review in accordance with the framework set out in Annex 1B and in the light of the results of any reviews held pursuant to paragraph 1. China also can raise issues relating to any reservations under Section 17 or to any other specific commitments made by other Members in this Protocol. The General Council may make recommendations to China and to other Members in these respects.

3. Consideration of issues pursuant to this Section shall be without prejudice to the rights and obligations of any Member, including China, under the WTO Agreement or any Plurilateral Trade Agreement, and shall not preclude or be a precondition to recourse to consultation or other provisions of the WTO Agreement or this Protocol. 

4. The review provided for in paragraphs 1 and 2 will take place after accession in each year for eight years. Thereafter there will be a final review in year 10 or at an earlier date decided by the General Council.

Part II - Schedules

1. The Schedules annexed to this Protocol shall become the Schedule of Concessions and Commitments annexed to the GATT 1994 and the Schedule of Specific Commitments annexed to the GATS relating to China. The staging of concessions and commitments listed in the Schedules shall be implemented as specified in the relevant parts of the relevant Schedules.

2. For the purpose of the reference in paragraph 6(a) of Article II of the GATT 1994 to the date of that Agreement, the applicable date in respect of the Schedules of Concessions and Commitments annexed to this Protocol shall be the date of accession.

Part III - Final Provisions

1. This Protocol shall be open for acceptance, by signature or otherwise, by China until 1 January 2002.

2. This Protocol shall enter into force on the thirtieth day following the day of its acceptance.

3. This Protocol shall be deposited with the Director-General of the WTO. The Director-General shall promptly furnish a certified copy of this Protocol and a notification of acceptance by China thereof, pursuant to paragraph 1 of Part III of this Protocol, to each WTO Member and to China.

4. This Protocol shall be registered in accordance with the provisions of Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.

Done at Doha this tenth day of November two thousand and one, in a single copy, in the English, French and Spanish languages, each text being authentic, except that a Schedule annexed hereto may specify that it is authentic in only one or more of these languages.

1 Council for Trade in Goods, Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, Council for Trade in Services, Committees on Balance-of-Payments Restrictions, Market Access (covering also ITA), Agriculture, Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures, Technical Barriers to Trade, Subsidies and Countervailing Measures, Anti-Dumping Measures, Customs Valuation, Rules of Origin, Import Licensing, Trade-Related Investment Measures, Safeguards, Trade in Financial Services.

英文资料来源:http://www.law-lib.com/law/law_view.asp?id=16692

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